Results Perak All-Comers 2017

>> February 28, 2017

Ipoh, 25-26 Feb 2017 "Perak Track and Field All-Comers 2017"
-best results as follows;

100m (26): Nixson Kennedy 10.6h (and 10.6 as 1h5), Muhammad Aqil Yasmin 10.6h, Muhammad Aiedel Sa'adon 10.6h, Mohd Izzuddin Yahaya 10.6h

200m (25): Muhammad Aqil Yasmin 21.3h, Mohammad Solihin Jamali 21.6h, Muhamad Shahrul Samali 21.7h

400m (26): Muhammad Ilham Suhaimi 48.1h, Mohd Izzuddin Yahaya 48.3h, Quek Lee Yong 48.5h, Muhammad Saiful Safwan Saifuddin 48.6h, Kwong Kar Jun 48.7h

1500m (25): 1r1 Prabudass Krishnan 3:59.1, 1r3 Ahmad Luth Hamizan 4:00.1h

110mH (25): Mohd Rizzua Haizad Muhammad 14.9h (and 14.96 as 1h1)

400mH (26): 1r2 Mohamed Farhan Hafsyam 54.3h, 1r1 Ruslem Zikry Putra Rosely 54.4h

High Jump (25): Norshafiee Mohd Shah 2.15

Long Jump (25): Abdul Latif Romly 7.40, Lukman Hakim 7.21

Triple Jump (26): Muhammad Nazri Mustafa 14.49

Shot Put (26): Adi Alifuddin Hussin 16.00, Muhammad Ziyad Zolkefli 15.74

Discus Throw (25): Abdul Rahman Lee 47.54

Hammer Throw (26): Michael Sia Suk Dak 44.62

10000m Walk (26): Lo Choon Sieng 44:11.0h

4x100m (25): SSTMI Team B 41.5h (and 41.5h as 1h2)

100m (26): Nor Aliyah Abdul Rahman 12.1h

200m (25): Nor Aliyah Abdul Rahman 24.6h

1500m (25): Savinder Kaur 4:55.3h

5000m (25): Yuan Yufang 18:05.43, Sheela Samivellu 18:48.82

100mH (25): Raja Nursheena Raja Azhar 13.7h (and 14.26 as 1h2), Nur Syafiqah Anis Abu Bakar 13.9h (and 14.35 as 1h1)

High Jump (26): Nur Syahirah Mohd Osman 1.66

Long Jump (26): Noor Shahidatun Nadia Mohd Zuki 6.16

Triple Jump (25): Kirthana Ramasamy 12.69

Shot Put (25): Bibi Nuraishah Ishak 12.55

Discus Throw (26): Yap Jeng Tzan 44.28

Hammer Throw (25): Nur Fazirah Jalaluddin 50.51

5000m Walk (25): Elena Goh 26:24.18


The Trend Through the Years in Sprints

>> February 15, 2017

Sprinting has grown immensely. The first winner of the Olympics did not run faster than 12.0 hand-time.

Four years later at the 1900 Olympics, two men have equaled the world record of 10.8 (hand-timed), which they achieved during the heats.

Both the winners of the 1932 and 1936 Olympics have recorded 10.3h.

In the 1960s, 10.3 hand-timed in men's 100m means you are world-class.

In the 1960s and 1970s, if you wish to run the 100m in less than 10s, altitude was a must. The idea was deemed very crucially during that time. Hence, a good selection of racing venues would be necessary.

Ben Johnson won a 100m bronze in the 1984 Olympics with a time of 10.24s. What is a 10.24s at present?

In the 1990s 10.1 electric means world-class.

Actually, you won't find so many athletes who could achieve a sub-10.10, and if you did, these athletes must be well renowned already.

To run the 100m in 2000 Olympics, you would just need a 10.38s result. Before the year 2000s, there were only 20+ sprinters who have run sub-10s.

As indicated in the All-Time best for the 100m as of 2003, there were less than 40 sprinters who have done sub-10s.

Ten years later on the lists, more than 100 sprinters listed to have broken the 10s barrier.

Asafa Powell alone has totaled more than 100 races in under 10s.

Bolt, Gay, Blake, Powell, Gatlin have run 9.58, 9.69, 9.69, 9.72, and 9.74s, respectively.

A 10.12s is the current Olympic and Worlds standard.

I was tempted to "document" the trend of changes through the years that might be relevant to this evolution. Here we go.

Before the 1980's - Complete genetics
  • Most sprinters in the past were "born sprinters", which means they would rely upon the genetics for their successes. 
  • The various limitations and limited high-performance culture did not allow them to train under the most effective environment and system that are available today.
  • Some athletes did benefit from better coaching from the great coaches in the past.

1980s - Strength and muscles
  • Because of the understanding that muscles that you would build could help generate higher force and power.
  • The use of steroid facilitated this practice.
  • "To run fast in sprints, you must develop muscles" (kind of mindset).
  • Anyone running sub-10s was linked to steroids.

1990s - Strength and power
  • Some good coaches started to realize it is the ability to maximize power output that matters than how much strength you have. 
  • A combination of muscles (strength) and power was thought to be essential.
  • Lack of understanding regarding the environment factor, that bigger athlete can deal better whenever the race is against the winds (headwinds).
  • Many people confused between strength and power during these days (unable to differentiate).
  • To break 10s in the 100m, you must develop muscles (kind of mindset).
  • 9.90 seconds was the limit of human performance, otherwise steroid (kind of mindset).
The early 2000s - Power
  • It was thought that fast turnover or cadence of legs is more crucial than having big muscles.
  • Tim Montgomery who broke WR in 9.78s in 2002, helped "confirmed" this belief.
  • Human now can run sub-9.85 but it must be under a highly favorable condition, otherwise, that must be associated with steroids (kind of mindset)
The late 2000s - Rate of force development
  • People started to think more critically, it is how much force you can produce in a short amount of time that could help you to run faster.
  • Sprinters in these days are generally not bigger in muscle sizing than those in the 1990s and 1980s.
2010s - Orientation of the force application
  • Marginal gains sort of thing - small things that can make a difference.
  • It's not only force and power, but it is how do you use it to make you a better sprinter.
  • The technique of force application can determine how properly and effectively the body can be propelled forward.
  • Efficiency in terms of using your "fuel" (strength and power) to "drive" quicker and faster.


Designing a Test Battery for Pole Vault

>> February 06, 2017

The main goal of pole vaulting is to jump over a crossbar with the help of a pole. The direction of a complete pole vault movement changes from horizontal to vertical. Here, pole vaulters produce forces, velocities, and energies during run-up and take-off, and also exerts force and strain energy on the pole to influence/control the trajectory (flight/curve).

There are four main phases in the pole vault, a) run-up, b) take off, c) pole bending, and d) pole straightening, which occurs in a continuous chain. The phases consider the ‘energy exchange’ between the vaulter and the pole.

The torques (i.e. forces) applied to the pole during take-off/plant have a direct influence on the final performance because it increases the bend and thus the strain energy stored in the pole.

Hence, higher forces applied allows a higher pole grip while being able to get the pole vertical prior to clearance.

Pole Vault Testing
Assessment is an integral part of any training programme. It is crucial to consider the specific element of sports when designing training programme because the demands vary greatly from one discipline/event to another. Such consideration can help one to determine appropriate tests as well. The suggested tests for pole vault is as outlined (see below). These can be done once prior to, and after each training block, or 3-4 times a year.

In addition, weekly or monthly monitoring programme can also be done using some of the tests, for examples, the countermovement jump and power push up are excellent tools for monitoring the athlete’s current fitness/power level.

Shoulder rotation test
Sit and reach modified
Back hyperextension
Power clean
Half squat
Hexagon deadlift
Incline press   
Hand grip test
10kg or 20kg (male) max pull up
Long jump (10-12 steps)
Squat jump     
Countermovement jump
Drop jump (30cm)
Bench throw
Power push up (force plate)
5-second pull up for repetition
4-kg med ball backward throw
30 m sprint (standing and three points)

The lists above are not meant to be done altogether, but these are the possible choices in a test battery for pole vault. You can decide which ones and how many tests that are required. For an idea, most probably you will need 3-4 strength tests and 4-5 power tests.


Can Random Signal and Noise (Stochastic Resonance) Improve Human Function and Athletic Performance?

>> November 26, 2016

For this unique topic, the best for me to start is by explaining how vibration can improve athletic performance.

I think that the Soviet coaches and scientists were the first to use vibration as a means to improve functional movements or even athletic performance. This could be traced back in the 1960s, when coaches in the Eastern Bloc started to use "contraction" type exercises such as oscillation training in their training ("secretly") to gain performance advantage in different circumstances (e.g. rehabilitation, normal training, conditioning).

Oscillation training involves a powerful muscular contraction, which enhances muscular strength and power. So this is basically sort of "vibrating the muscle" areas under tension (loaded) you wish to develop, or so.

Fast forward, in the 1980s, Vladimir Nazarov assessed the feasibility of vibration to maintain strength and muscle mass among cosmonauts. The reason for this was when in space, the reduced gravitational force might affect bone density, strength, and muscle mass. As a result, cosmonauts might be susceptible to having bone fractures, muscle atrophy, and weakening of strength very quickly upon returning to earth.

It is not practical to have "gym" in space and what can possibly be done is to use vibration for the said purposes. This way the duration of stay in space could be extended as well.
The commercially available vibratory platforms, and their types of vibration, from left: Power Plate (sine wave), Galileo (sine wave), and SRT (stochastic resonance)

Effects of vibration on performance

Vibration has been used to elicit a stretch reflex in the muscles in order to "potentiate" the following performance. Of note, any preconditioning stimulus (such as using heavy resistance as well as vibration) could have the potential to improve subsequent tasks (performance). This is called "post-activation potentiation".

More recently, a training study provided evidence supporting the suitability of vibration training (Perez-Turpin et al., 2014). The authors described its effectiveness that provided rapid gains in performance, more than conventional training (i.e. increased leg strength and jump performance in 6 weeks).

According to the authors ... activation of muscle spindles from vibration could stimulate alpha motor neurons and promote stretch reflexes. They further clarified that long-term vibration training gained via neural adaptation was similar to the effects of resistance training, that is the enhancement of motor unit firing, motor unit synchronization, synergist muscle contraction, antagonist muscle inhibition, and adaptation of the reflex response.

They postulated that strength increases following vibration training are of hormonal modulation (ie. changes), that is essential for muscle hypertrophy and force production.

Stochastic resonance vibration 

Basically, there are two main types of vibration: sinusoidal and stochastic resonance vibration (see "vibratory platforms" above).

The sinusoidal has a constant vibration frequency, which distinguishes its "character" from stochastic resonance, which has random vibration frequencies.

Most of (if not all?) the previous studies investigating vibration and performance (jump, power, speed, sprint, agility, strength, etc.) have used the sinusoidal type vibration.
This Image shows Sine Wave-type vibration; the repetition of each vibration shows a linear combination of Sinusoidal waves in harmonic motion

This Image shows the noise and signal of Stochastic Resonance
However, the nature of the sine wave is that the stimulus is constant and therefore, predictable by the body. This is not collateral with training aims that appreciate the idea of progressive overload and variety in order to create a new stimulus required for improvement.

The fact is that humans can easily habituate (or adapted) with constant information or stimulus!

In contrast, stochastic resonance is a phenomenon in which noise is added to improve response, through vibration. The generated vibration contains random noise, which can promote unpredictable stimulus (i.e. random signal and noise), and as a result, will increase sensory sensitivity. In short, the cells are more easily excited under stochastic conditions.
Vibratory Shoe Insoles... "Stochastic resonance was delivered to the soles of the feet via controlled vibratory stimuli. Vibrations were generated by piezo-electric actuators mounted within the insoles and driven by a control unit (black box) secured to the outside top of the shoe "...Junhong Zhou et al., 2016.
The potential use of stochastic resonance training to improve athletic performance

To date, stochastic resonance is mostly used in a rehabilitation setting, such as restoration of normal functions of patients (stroke, Parkinson disease, etc.) and musculoskeletal pains - back, knee, neck, shoulder, arm, ankle, foot, and hip (see Elferig et al., 2011).

Stochastic resonance vibration has also been used to improve postural control in the older adult using 'vibratory shoe insole' (see above), apart from enhancing the perception of information essential to support motor performance, while offsetting a reduced sensory sensitivity through injury, aging and so on (see Davids et al., 2004).

Bear in mind that our body has a certain level (threshold) of detection capability and this is influenced by various factors (aging, injury etc.).

Aging people are synonymous with aging-associated diseases, illnesses, and injuries. With aging as well, sensations may be changed, which is increased weak sensory signals, which in turn, decrease detection capability.

Hence, stochastic resonance can be exploited in order to increase the detection capability (i.e. it adds up to the body's existing or present signal, that is weak due to, for example, injury/aging).

The "noise" can be mistakenly understood as the perturbation (i.e. undesirable), but the stochastic resonance should be viewed as "essential noise," see below.

In order to improve the transmission of neural signals (and detection capability), the noise must be optimal, not too high, and not too weak. If the noise is too strong for example, it cannot be discriminated against the"general noise."
Stochastic resonance is observed in added random noise (optimal/good), in contrast to high noise (detrimental)
From the above, it seems that the perception of information can be increased by the noise as a result of sensitization of the weak sensory signal (sub-threshold signal), which could have potential in sports performance settings.

If the detection capability can be amplified by an added signal to improve human function; it certainly has the potential to improve certain areas of sports performance. German scientists and athletes have been trying to utilize stochastic resonance to improve sports performance (watch SRT Zeptor Vibration Training below; SRT = stochastic resonance training/therapy).

In addition, if vibration can be used to potentiate or improve athletic performance, a combination of vibration and random noise (i.e. stochastic resonance) for athletic performance enhancement seems promising.

Further research is necessary to understand its roles for performance enhancement (e.g. jumping, strength, and speed) and in which way it can be utilized to improve training quality.


How to Improve Sprint Performance Using Strength Training?

>> November 16, 2016

Strength is a fitness component that crucial for sports requiring high-speed and short term effort. This includes sprinting on the track (athletics) and on the field (rugby, soccer, etc.)

Greater muscular strength can improve the ability to produce power and rate of force development (RFD), which are prerequisites for enhancing sprint performance.

Power and RFD are the qualities that clearly separate between sprinters of different sprinting ability levels.

Interestingly, a recent review also suggests that having a sufficient strength level may also helpful for injury prevention.

Furthermore, one must consider an appropriate strength development in order to maximize its transfer into sports performance. Good programming is, therefore, necessary (this requires another thread of discussion!).

Regardless of training strategies (periodization), the force-velocity curve must be understood, which is the relationship between velocity and force that can determine the selection of load intensity and exercise. Thus, several strength qualities need to be considered by a coach when developing a sprinter, as follows:

a) Basic strength
Associated with an increased ability to produce force. Basic strength can be developed all year round although some weeks (microcycle) or months (mesocycles) may not the number one priority.
Examples of basic strength development for sprinters as follows:

Reps: 5-8 reps
Sets: 3-4 sets
Percent: 85-90%
tempo: Fast contraction
Exercises: Power clean, back squat, bench press

b) Maximal strength
Similar to basic strength, performed as the progress of basic strength. The goal of maximal strength training is to improve the ability of muscles to produce high force production, which is necessary to improve high-level power and RFD. The key when performing maximal strength is executing "high contraction velocity" (felt like as performing fast movement) during the lifting, against a very high external load.

Reps: 2-4 reps
Sets: 4-6 sets
Percent: 90-95%
Tempo: Fast contraction
Exercises: Power clean, half squat, bench press

c) Strength-speed
The goal in strength-speed exercise is to perform the exercise as fast as possible, against a heavy load. This should be utilized after completing a phase when maximal strength was the focus.

Reps: 5-6
Sets: 3-4
Percent: 70-80%
Tempo: Fast contraction
Exercises: Power clean, half squat, bench press

d) Speed-strength / explosive strength
The goal in speed-strength exercise is to perform the exercise as fast as possible, against a lighter load. The key when performing speed-strength is "vigorous extension" of joints (or extremely fast action). This strength quality must be considered in order to develop a powerful athlete (sprinter).

Reps: 6-8
Sets: 3-5
Percent: 20-30%
Tempo: Fast contraction
Exercises: Countermovement clean, jump squats, hang snatch, arm swing with a light load

e) Reactive strength
This is another priority when developing a sprinter. Reactive strength is the ability to change quickly from eccentric to concentric, or stretch-shortening cycle. Having a good reactive strength is associated with the ability to produce high force within a short period. In sprinting, the higher force one develops within 100 milliseconds (typical ground contact during late acceleration, as an example) the better (faster) the athlete. Hence, improving reactive strength can enhance rebound performance or fast ground contact - and sprint performance.

Reps: 6-10 
Sets: 3-4
Percent: Bodyweight or with very lightweight
Tempo: Fast contact on the ground
Exercises: drop jump, bounding

Read more about explosive and reactive strength here.

Meanwhile, specific strength development (e.g. sled pulling, hill run, etc.) must also be considered in order to maximize the transfer of strength into functional power, which are crucial for sports performance. However, this is another topic that requires another post.

One commonly asked question in strength development is related to how much load one must lift in order to be deemed sufficient, particularly for sprinting.

A quick answer is "depend on sports". Broadly speaking, one who has a relative strength value of 2.00 in the back squat is considered "strong" and able to take advantage of optimized the potentiation effect.

In layman, stronger athletes can be more powerful and sprint faster.

Meanwhile, exercise selection can be determined by understanding the segment of force-velocity interaction. Some exercise is high-velocity in nature and some others can be customized to be high-velocity or force based on training goals, or desired adaptations.

a) High-velocity exercise (low load) - jump squat, drop jump, power hurdling, assistance (band) training

b) High-force exercise (high load) - deadlift, back squat, power clean, overhead press

c) High-velocity or high-force exercise (customizable) - power clean, power clean, snatch, overhead press

Practically speaking, one can enhance power production by improving either force or velocity, or both.


Results Malaysia Open Track and Field 2016

>> October 02, 2016

Kuala Lumpur, 30 Sep - 2 Oct 2016 "93rd Malaysia Open Track and Field Championships"
-at University of Malaya
-first three (Day 3 - 2 Oct)

200m (-0.9)
1. Khairul Hafiz Jantan 21.10
2. Aravinn Thevar Gunasegaran 21.14
3. Jonathan Nyepa 21.18
4. Badrul Hisyam Abdul Manap 21.24

1. Karim Yousef (KUW) 47.57
2. Mohd Shahmimi Azmi 48.24
3. Muhd Saiful Safban Saifuddin 48.32

400m Hurdles
1. Saleem Hamid (KUW) 51.70
2. Francis Medina (PHI) 52.82
3. Muhd Farhan Hafzam 53.46

High Jump
1. Lee Hup Wei 2.16
2. Norshafiee Mohd Shah 2.13
3. Prakash Krishnan 2.10

Long Jump
1.  Mohd Muslim Md Nazri 7.48
2. Luqman Hakim Ramlan 7.26
3. Mohd Shahrin Azuan Jamaika 7.20

10,000m W
1. Lo Choon Sieng 1:37:15.47
2. Irfan Hanania Abdul Sharir 1:45:13.28
3. Mior Muhammad Amerul 1:47:08.46

1. Kuwait Team 3:17.08
2. Sabah Team 3:17.59
3. Johor Team 3:33.26

200m (-1.3)
1. Komalam Shally Selveratnam 24.26
2. Zaidatul Husniah Zulkifli 24.36
3. Siti Fatimah Mohamad 24.57

1. Nurul Faezah Asma Mazlan 54.73
2. Tanalaksiuma Reyer 57.36
3. Fatin Faqihah Yusuf 57.51

1. Savinder Kaur 5:00.33
2. Puspa Letchumy 5:05.84
3. Ng Yew Cheo (SIN) 5:36.49

1. Noor Amelia Musa 19:21.60
2. Ainur Shafiqah Azmi 20:13.20
3. Salesnella Gabi 20:13.56

400m Hurdles
1. Saidatul Izzaty Suhaimi 61.93
2.  Noor Shila Idris 66.89
3. Kerstin Ong (SIN) 67.68

Pole Vault
1. Chuah Yu Tian 3.60
2. Asmah Hanim (SIN) 3.20
3. Leong Wen Jun (SIN) 2.60

1. Norliyana Kamaruddin 4913
(15.73, 1.75, 11.82, 26.87;5.38, 32.33, 2:30.12)
2. Narcisa Atienza (PHI) 4369
(15.39, 1.66, 12.18, 28.00 4.96, 39.56, 3:12.11)
3. Jasmeen Johan 3238
(16.93, 1.39, 6.36, 28.44; 4.80, 19.62, 2:51.07)

1. Armed Forces Team 4:17.49
2. Sabah Team 4:31.44
3. PDRM Team 4:47.16

Medal Tally
ATM Team 16G, 7S, 6B = 29
Kuwait Team 8G, 2S, 0B = 10
Thailand Team 3G, 3S, 1B = 7
Sabah Team 2G, 4S, 3B = 9
Kuala Lumpur Team 2G, 4S, 1B = 7


Results Malaysia Open Athletics Championships

>> October 01, 2016

Kuala Lumpur, 30 Sep - 2 Oct 2016  "93rd Malaysia Open Track and Field Championships"
-at University of Malaya
-first three (Day 2 - 1 Oct)

1. Raymond Yew 1:52.85
2. Asif Rahman Jiyaudeen 1:53.71
3. Kesavan Maniam 1:53.86

1. Prabudass Krishnan 15:24.64
2. Thevan Rajoo 15:26.73
3. Sivaneshwaran Gunasegaran 16:05.96

3000m Sc
1. Ahmad Luth Hamizan 9:47.07
2. Royson Vincent 9:52.98
3. Amirul Hakim Johari 10:11.82

1. Atyouha Yaqoub (KUW) 13.83 (meet record)
2. Rayzam Shah Wan Sofian 14.07
3. Mohd Rizzua Haizad 14.44

Pole Vault
1. Porranot Purahong  (THA) 5.10
2. Alsbaga Ali (KUW) 5.00
3. Iskandar Alwi 4.80

Discus Throw
1. Zankabi Eisa (KUW) 56.09
2. Abdul Rahman Lee 43.83
3. Muhammad Hafifi Najiy Ali 43.62

Hammer Throw
1. Jackie Wong Siew Cheer 64.42
2. Michael Sia Sung Dak 53.14
3. Johnny Ling Siew Hong 48.38

1. Alzied Majed (KUW) 6836
(11.79, 6.80, 11.02, 1.82, 49.82 / 15.63, 35.26, 4.40, 45.88, 4:27.85)
2. Suttisak Singkok (THA) 6699
(11.21, 7.34, 13.11, 1.91, 50.47 ; 15.41, 26.42, 3.90, 51.74, 5:30.05)
3. Mohd Luqman Mohammad Zuki 6097
(11.52, 6.28, 10.92, 1.79, 51.61 / 15.80, 34.88, 4.20, 37.57, 5:28.51)

1. Melaka Team 40.57
2. Kuwait Team 41.38
3. Brunei Team 41.44 (NR)

1. Savider Kaur 2:13.47
2. Teoh Kim Chyi 2:21.02
3. Faradilah Raznie 2:29.14

3000m Sc
1. Salesnella Gabi 12:25.20
2. Ainur Shafiqah Azmi 12:39.87
3. Farah Mohd Johari 16:13.63

100m H
1. Raja Nursheena Raja Azhar 14.40
2. Suchada Measri (THA) 14.44
3. Padtamaban Riyaphn (THA) 15.13

Long Jump
1. Noor Shahidatun Nadia Mohd Zuki 5.95
2. Nurul Fatimatul Zhara Awang 5.53
3. Mahira Hanis Ishak 5.33

Discus Throw
1. Yap Jeng Tzan 46.12
2. Connie Chong Kang Ni 44.90
3. Queenie Ting Kung Ni 40.00

Hammer Throw
1. Grace Wong Xiu Mei 55.54
2. Panwat Gimsrang (THA) 55.28
3. Nurfazira Jalaluddin 51.28

10000m W
1. Elena Goh Ling Yin 53:41.63
2. Pua Ling En 54:49.69
3. Nurul Alya Haziqah 55:37.08

1. ATM Team 45.90
2. Sabah Team 49.64
3. Johor Team 50.51


What it takes to run the 100m in less than 10.00s? and 10.50s? and 11.00s?

Fitness tests are commonly used by coaches and sports scientists to identify the current status of athletes, as a training reference source, and to assess the potential in actual performance, for example:  ability to run the 100m event in a specific timing.

To answer this question, "what it takes to run the 100m in less than 11.00s, less than 10.50s, or even sub-10s"?, coaches can consider several tests or assessments.

There are several tests that can be performed to assist in extrapolating the potential times (e.g., sub-10s) in 100m dash.

The recommended tests have taken into account the physiological and neuromuscular requirements for the 100m dash, such as acceleration, maximum speed, speed endurance, explosive power, reactive strength, and maximum strength.

Please see the parameters for the tests in the table below.

This guide may be used as a reference for young male sprinters, aged approximately 18 to 21 years. 

Older sprinters would have spent more hours of training (volume), physically well-built, and thus requires different criteria.

These tests can be done at the end of the preparation phase, or in the pre-competition phase, for the purpose of “predicting” your sprinter’s potential during the season.

Keep in mind that your athlete's ability will change based on the training provided.

The data obtained will give you an idea regarding the athlete's ability and potential, and should be used with caution; i.e., for a broad reference only (to understand the capacity and potential of your sprinters), and should not be used as an absolute confirmation.

Therefore, you must also know how to interpret or aggregate the test data; especially in a situation where a sprinter achieves "very good" results in one or two tests, but not so well in other tests.



To be updated




To be updated



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