A Hybrid Model of Periodization

>> March 29, 2012

Periodization is a training strategy that has been utilized by coaches to improve athletes' performance on the field. This concept of training organization allows no stagnation of stimulus as it effectively structures or "periodize" the training objectives in order to optimize an overall training effect.

Specifically, the distribution of workload is organized in a careful manner within a specific model of programming that allows peak performance to be attained during a major competition while minimizing the likelihood of injury.

There are several models that have been adopted; traditional (linear or step-wise), block (linear), and undulating (non-linear).

Furthermore, a relatively new model, Hybrid Periodization is based upon the latest scientific findings in training methodology, is being utilized in elite training to further maximize gains in speed and power.

Using any of these models, training for specific qualities, e.g. hypertrophy, strength, and power are arranged in a specific sequence to enhance adaptations and maximize the expected gains (e.g. power, speed, etc.)

a) Traditional periodization
- Proposed by Lev Matveyev, a Russian professor and coach, in the 1950s
- Emphasizes the relationship between volume and intensity; high volume low intensity at the beginning and progressed to high intensity and low volume
- Examples:
   - First 4 weeks  = 5 sets x 12 reps x 70%
   - Next 4 weeks = 5 sets x 6 reps x 85%
   - Next 4 weeks = 5 sets x 2 reps x 95%

b) Block periodization
- Proposed by Yuri Verkhoshansky, a Russian scientist and coach, in the 1970s
- Popularised by Vladimir Issurin
- Because of the need to provide a sufficient stimulus to high-performance athletes (elite), the Traditional approaches had to be modified; this approach, therefore based upon the idea of a concentrated training stimulus
- Follows a logical order in a sequential mesocycle or blocks: (I) accumulation (high volume and low intensity; (II) Transformation (e.g. strength emphasis); (III) Realization (e.g. power emphasis).

c) Undulating periodization
- Lev Matveyev modified his previous works and proposed a "wave-like" approach of volume and intensity (i.e. undulating).
- Popularized by Charles Poliquin in the late the 1980s
- Dan Baker, a coach, and scientist studied the effects of undulating periodization in the early 1990s
- It can be done on a daily basis (Daily Undulating periodization) or weekly basis (Weekly Periodization).
- Daily Undulating periodization: Monday (Hypertrophy), Wednesday (Strength),  and Friday (Power) ... and repeat the same setting in the following week.
- Weekly Undulating periodization: Week I (Hypertrophy), Week II (Strength), and Week III (Power) ... and repeat the cycle.

d) Hybrid periodization
- A hybrid model of periodization considers the utilization of mixed qualities within a unit of program, using a proven or logical training setting (e.g. complex sets).
- This model takes advantage of advancement in training methodology with regards to the combined or mixed training approach to further optimize the potential training gains.
- Setting: foundation aspect of training (e.g. hypertrophy or sprinters; endurance for runners; or a mix of both) and followed by a "mixed method" (i.e. hybrid) in the subsequent phases for optimal gains.
- Example 1:
   Phase I - Foundation (e.g. Hypertrophy)
   Phase II - Strength; contrast design, emphasizing maximal strength (main), and power (secondary)
   Phase III - Power; complex design, emphasizing speed and power (main), and strength as "stimulus". Phase III takes advantage of the effect of post-activation potentiation.

- Example 2:
   Phase I - Hypertrophy and Endurance; 5 sets x 15-15-12-10-10 @ 65-75%
   Phase II - Max strength + power; 3 sets x 5 reps @ 85%  plus  5 reps @ 30% (speed),
                    or 5 sets x 5@85%, 4@88%, 5@70% (fast), 3@90%, 5@70% (fast)
   Phase III - Power; 3 sets x 3 reps @ 90% plus 10 speed-bounding, or
                                 3 sets x 5@85% plus 6 box jump

A comparison among Traditional, Block and Hybrid Periodization (programming)

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ASIAN LEADERS (Men)

100m 9.91 Su Bingtian CHN, Madrid
200m 20.16 Xie Zhenye CHN, Osaka
400m 44.07 Abdalelah Haroun QAT, London
800m 1:45.65 Jinson Johnson IND, Guwahati
1500m 3:34.55 Sadik Mikhou BRN, Paris
5000m 13:01.09 Birhanu Yemataw BRN, Lausanne
10000m 27:38.16 Hassan Chani BRN, Maia
Mar 2:06.11 Yuta Shitara JPN, Tokyo
3000 Sc 8:22.00 Kosei Yamaguchi JPN, Abashiri
110mh 13.36 Ahmad Al-Mouaed KSA, Praha
400mh 46.98 Abderrahman Samba QAT, Paris
HJ 2.40 Mutaz Barshim QAT, Doha
PV 5.71 Xue Changrui CHN, Shanghai
LJ 8.47A Wang Jianan CHN, Guiyang
TJ 17.22 Dong Bin CHN, Eugene OR
SP 20.24 Tejinder Singh IND, Patiala
DT 68.85 Ehsan Hadidi IRI, Chula Vista CA
HT 78.18 Dilshod Nazarov TJK, Chorzow
JT 87.43 Neeraj Chopra IND, Doha
Dec 7948 Keisuke Ushiro JPN, Gotzis
20kmW 1:17:26 Eiki Takahashi JPN, Kobe
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ASIAN LEADERS (Women)

100m 10.99 Wei Yongli CHN, Resisprint
200m 22.73 Viktoriya Zyabkina KAZ, Almaty
400m 49.08 Salwa Eid Naser BRN, Monaco
800m 2:02.23 Manal Bahraoui BRN, Duffel
1500m 4:11.55 P.U Chitra IND, Guwahati
5000m 15:10.91 Rina Nabeshima JPN, Eugene OR
10000m 31:52.42 Mizuki Matsuda JPN, Yamaguchi
Mar 2:22.44 Mizuki Matsuda JPN, Osaka
3000 Sc 9:10.74 Winfred Yavi BRN, Monaco
100mh 13.08 Wu Shuijiao CHN, Shanghai
400mh 55.54 Aminat Odeyemi BRN, Goleniow
HJ 1.91 Nadzehda Dusanova UZB, Tashkent
PV 4.60 Li Ling CHN, London
LJ 6.64A Xu Xiaoling CHN, Guiyang
TJ 14.25 Olga Rypakova KAZ, Paris
SP 20.38A Gong Lijiao CHN, Guiyang
DT 67.03 Chen Yang CHN, Osterode
HT 75.02 Luo Na CHN, Halle
JT 67.69 Lu Huihui CHN, Halle
Hep 5898 Purnima Hembram IND, Guwahati
20kmW 1:26:28 Qieyang Shenjie CHN, La Coruna

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