What is Reactive Strength Performance?

>> July 26, 2015

The ability to change quickly from eccentric to concentric is one quality that can distinguish between the better and the best athletes. This is called reactive strength. Because eccentric is basically "lengthening" action and concentric is "shortening," reactive strength, therefore, represents the ability to utilize the stretch-shortening cycle or plyometrics.

Dietmar Schmidtbleicher once told me that definition of strength qualities are not invariably consistent, despite "a consensus has been reached" during several conference meetings with his American and European colleagues such as William Kraemer, Steven Fleck, and Keijo Hakkinen. Despite the different terms being used to describe muscle actions, they are intended for the same matter, and fundamentally similar when it comes to actual "practical".

Broadly, reactive strength performance considers two components;
  1. Time (duration)
  2. Force (effort)
It is crucial to ask how much forces one can produce in a restricted time, in which movements are likely to occur. For examples, top sprinters' contact time is ~0.08s during the maximal speed, and the take-off in long jump event is ~0.15s. The total force one can generate within these short periods can determine the outcome of ensuing actions, including reactivity performance and forward (or upward) displacement.

It also clarifies why the  take-off phase during the long jump is vital for attaining the long jump distance (displacement) due to the time to be spent for generation of a large sum of take-off forces (combined with speed from the run-up).

Logically, a high force generation during a contact phase is concomitant with increased ground contact time, and vice versa. This can be good, or bad, its depend... For example, in long jump, the penultimate (take-off) contact leads to braking action, but in turn, creates a larger impulse that promotes higher forward force propulsion that assist the launch the body forward.

This force generation ability will contribute to maximal sprinting performance as well, but not to the extent of the take-off phase during long jump that appears to be counterproductive for sprinting due to braking action. Braking action as low as 0.02 seconds (e.g. 0.10s to 0.12s during each ground contact, 20%) will largely affect sprinting performance, by reducing sprinting velocity.

Hence, optimal contact time during a specific context (~0.08s for maximal-velocity phase, or ~0.15s long jump take-off) is the key. Keep in mind that a higher force generation combined with optimal contacts can promote a better performance. In short, these context-specific actions are related to reactive strength and explosive strength qualities.

Reactive strength is different from explosive strength

It can be confusing if one wishes to distinguish between the two as both have similar characteristics, and even occurs almost concurrently. Take a look at different definitions and examples.

Definition 1 (point 1: similar)
  • Reactive strength - ability to produce a high amount of force in a minimal time.
  • Explosive strength - ability to produce a high amount of force in a minimal time.
Definition 2 (point 2: the difference between reactive- vs explosive-strength)
  • Reactive strength - ability to effectively utilize the stretch-shortening cycle in a minimal time upon impact on the ground.
  • Explosive strength - ability to generate a higher rise in force production in a minimal time, once a movement has started.

Example 1 - different exercise
  • Drop jump exercise (reactive strength)
    Reactive strength - multiple hurdle jumps 
  • Explosive strength - box jump (onto a box)

Example 2 - same exercise 
  • Reactive strength - landing phase of the drop countermovement jump 
  • Explosive strength - extension phase of the drop countermovement jump
Example 3 - during long jump
  • Reactive strength - the take-off action, a fast stretch shortening cycle 
  • Explosive strength - the rapid flexions and extensions of muscles involved
Regardless of definitions, both strength qualities are crucial and they can be the major part (performance determinants) of any high-speed, repetitive, and powerful movements such as sprinting, change of direction, and quickness.

Reactive strength is also linked to Rate of Force Development (RFD), which has been explained earlier.


Results MAKSAK Track and Field Championships 2015

>> July 14, 2015

Johor Bahru, 24-26 April 2015 “MAKSAK Athletics Championships”


100m (26): Mohd Izzuddin Yahya 10.63, 2. Eddie Edward Jr 10.81, 3. Mohd Azhar Md Ismail 10.98, 4. Mohd Muslim Mohd Nazri 11.16;

-heats: nwi/ doubtful-timing:
H1: Mohd Izzuddin Yahaya 10.42, Mohd Azhar Md Ismail 10.57, Hafizi Talib 10.85, Mohd Putera Mohd Amin 11.11;
H2: Abdul Rashid Osman 10.45, Muhammad Hakim Faizi Rusli 10.71, Mohd Fahmi Sarkinin 10.87;
H3: Eddie Edward Jr 10.44, Mohd Muslim Mohd Nasri 10.59;

200m (24): Mohd Izzuddin Yahaya 22.00, 2. Rayzam Shah Wan Sofian 22.10, 3. Harmizi Arobi 22.79, 4. Abdul Rashid Osman 22.85 (& 22.72 as 1h3);

400m (26): Yuvaaraj Panerselvam 49.09, 2. Harmizi Arobi 49.28, 3. Jegan Arumugam (Prk) 49.86;

800m (25): Jegan Arumugam (Prk) 1:56.27, 2. Mohd Shafiq Syamsul Bahri (AF) 1:57.22, 3. Parthiban Murugiah (AF) 1:58.24, 4. Adision Tuah (Per) 2:01.42;

1500m (25): Prabudass Krishnan 4:10.54, 2. Jenarthanan Panerselvam 4:14.24, 3. Tanakendiran Sumudam (Penjara) 4:14.82;

5000m (25): Thevan Rajoo 15:31.79, 2. Nik Fakaruddin Ismail 15:45.76, 3. Venugopal Rajendran 16:10.64, 4. Mohd Helmi Azri Suhaimi 16:28.74, 5. Rosnizam Rosli (AF) 16:31.00, 6. Amirudin Nasir (Per) 16:51.68;

10000m (24): Thevan Rajoo 32:45.14, 2. Muhaizar Mohamad (AF) 33:12.40, 3. Nik Fakaruddin Ismail (AF) 33:16.07, 4. Mohd Jironi Riduan 33:35.50, 5. Venugopal Rajendran 35:52.11;

3000st (26): Prabidass Krishnan (AF) 9:59.85, 2. Jayakumar Ramasamy (Sel)10:12.23, 3. Affindi Nudin (AF) 10:18.93;

110mh (26)/+2.3: Rayzam Shah Wan Sofian 13.98w, 2. Zulhelmy Zainon (AF) 15.42w (& 15.43 as 1h1), 3. Zakaria Usup (PDRM) 16.00w;

400mh (24): Mohd Azri Kadir 54.98, 2. Syed Mohd Rizal Syed Alwi (AF) 56.42, 3. Muhamad Idzham Mohd Mahzan (Pah) 57.55;

P V (24): Muhammad Iqbal Hakim Mustfa Kamal 4.20, 2. Yaseer Asuad Abu (Mal) 3.30, 3. Henrile Dusik (PDRM) 3.00, 4. Anslem Sidau 3.00, 5. Frankie Buang (AF) 2.90, 6. Adirenes Admin (PDRM) 2.70;

L J (24): Mohd Muslim Mohd Nazri (AF) 7.27, 2. Camillus David 7.18, 3. Sharizal Enim (Penjara) 6.81;

T J (26): Muhd Sukri Said (AF) 13.80;

S P (24): Hafiz hashim 15.26, 2. Muhamad Malik Tobias 14.34, 3. Goh Wei Kiang 12.62, 4. Mohd Hasrul Nizam Yaakob (Kul) 12.57, 5. Ngu Kit Min 12.42, 6. Linus Nicholas 12.15, 7. Samsudin Ismail (AF) 12.06;

D T (24): Ngu Kit min 40.98, 2. Hafiz Hashim 38.95, 3. Muhamad Malik Tobias 38.36, 4. Mohd Hasrul Nizam Yaakob 35.82, 5. Shahril Firdaus Baseh (AF) 35.09, 6. Goh Wei Kiang (Joh) 34.70;

H T (26): Rizhan Rajmi 43.02, 2. Mohd Nizam Mohd Zuki 38.23, 3. Musmuliandy Mustaffa 37.05, 4. Yazid Yusoff (Joh) 33.53;

J T (26): Bakri Hamid 60.81, 2. Lau Sie Long 53.96, 3. Ruzaini Subki (AF) 52.86, 4. Linus Nicholas 50.90, 5. Suhaimi Hadi 49.53;

10000m W (26): Rajaratnam Muniandy (AF) 52:06.33;

4x100m (25): ATM Team 41.85, 2. Sabah Team 42.14, 3. PDRM Team 42.84;


100m (26): Komalam Shally Selveratnam 11.90 (& 12.01 as 1h1), 2. Siti Fatimah Mmohamad 12.09 (& 12.15 as 1h3);

200m (24): Komalam Shally Selveratnam 25.16, 2. Siti Fatimah Mohamad 25.99;

400m (26): Nurul Faezah Asma Mazlan 56.02

800m (25): Noor Amelia Musa 2:20.55

1500m (24): Noor Amelia Musa 4:46.55

5000m (25): Noor Amelia Musa 18:05.55, 2. Emilia Jamil 21:49.34, 3. Kona Lydia Liau 22:08.01, 4. Norzaemah Mat Hussin (AF) 22:34.25;

10000m (24): Norzalina Mohd Asri (AF) 46:15.47, 2. Kona Lydia Liau (Sab) 46:55.73, 3. Norazilah Othman (AF) 47:37.73, 4. Lasiana Lucas (PDRM) 47:56.91;

3000st (26): Emilia Jamil 13:47.36, 2. Norazilah Osman 13:55.42, 3. Farah Mohd Johari 14:46.81, 4. Angela Kundang 15:03.35;

110mh (26): Vaneysia Ulau Jonada 14.66, 2. Zura Omar 15.35, 3. Siti Rahayu Nasir (AF) 15.97;

400mh (24): Siti Aisyah Mahthir (AF) 69.27, 2. Nik Noor Amalina Bakri (PDRM) 71.01;

H J (24): Siti Rahayu Nasir (AF) 1.51, 2. Ruba Rajanthran (AF) 1.51

L J (25): Nurul Fatimatul Zahrah Awang 5.70;

T J (24): Norena Damnoen 11.73

S P (26): Liong Siau Lai (PDRM) 10.13, 2. Nur Fatin Adibah Suharman 9.63, 3. Nadzirah Che Mat 9.36;

D T (26): Norfatehah Nazeri (AF) 30.74, 2. Liong Siau Lai (PDRM) 28.28;

J T (24): Nadzirah Che Mat (AF) 36.81, 2. Nir Fatin Adibah Suharman (AF) 35.96;

10000m W (26): Norliana Mohd Rusni 58:15.62, 2. Norzalina Mohd Asri (AF) 1:03:56.01, 3. Kamala Devi Kolanthai 1:08:22.76, 4. Vithiaa Nilamani 1:10:35.80;


Isaac Makwala 43.72s 400m, Abdalellah Haroun 44.27s 400m, Henricho Bruintjies 9.97s 100m

>> July 06, 2015

ISAAC MAKWALA (pic) runs 43.72s at 400m to regain his African Record; but 18-year-old ABDALELAH HAROUN broke ASIAN record in 44.27s; and South Africa’s HENRICHO BRUINTJIES has gone sub-10 with 9.97s that is a new South African record.

Botswana's Isaac Makwala has responded immediately to South Africa’s Wayde van Niekerk who broke his African Record (AfR) 44.01 (2014) with 43.96 at Paris Diamond League on Saturday with an impressive performance of 43.72 from R├ęsisprint international meeting at La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland) on Sunday (5 July 2015).

Coached by former superstar Stepher Buckland, the 28-year-old Makwala has now becomes the 5th fastest 400m runner in history, behind only the great Michael Johnson, Reynolds, Wariner, and Watts, and faster than LaShawn Meritt and Kirani James.

On the same race, Abdalelah Haroun of Qatar has broken Yousef Masrahi's ASIAN record (44.43) with a time of 44.27 to finish second behind Makwala. Haroun surprised the World last year by setting 45.74 when he was 17 years old. He has six sub-45 so far from only this year including THREE at 44.68 which he set each in April, May, and June. Will he gets a medal at World championships in August?

Meanwhile, 21-year-old Henricho Bruintjies registered 9.97 (0.8m/s) in the 100m heats to set a new South African record but he was unable to repeat that in the finals, clocking only 10.28 when he ran against a -2.1m/s headwind.

Men's 400m ALL-TIME Lists at 6 July 2015

43.18 Michael Johnson USA Sevilla 1999
43.29 Butch Reynolds USA Zurich 1988
43.45 Jeremy Wariner USA Osaka 2007
43.50 Quincy Watts USA Barcelona 1992
43.72 ISAAC MAKWALA BOT La Chaux-de-Fonds 2015
43.74 LaShawn Merritt USA Moskva 2013
43.74 Kirani James GRN Lausanne 2014
43.81 Danny Everett USA New Orleans 1992
43.86 Lee Evans USA Cd Mexico 1968
43.87 Steve Lewis USA Seoul 1988
43.96 Wayde van Niekrek RSA Paris 2015
43.97 Larry James USA Cd Mexico 1968
44.05 Angelo Taylor USA Indianapolis 2007
44.09 Alvin Harrison USA Atlanta 1996
44.09 Jerome Young USA New Orleans 1998

View official results of R├ęsisprint international meeting

Photo by IAAF


ISF WORLD School & 2nd ASIAN School Athletics Championship at Wuhan China

>> July 01, 2015

The ISF (International School Sport Federation) World schools track and field championships was held in conjunction with the 2nd Asian schools track and held championships on 29-30 June 2015 at Wuhan China.


Vietnamese Quach Cong Lich runs 45.99s at 400m

>> June 29, 2015

Quach Cong Lich became the first Vietnamese to run the quarter-mile event in less than 46 seconds. He clocked a new national record time of 45.99s to win the third leg of ASIAN Grand Prix at Chanthaburi, Thailand today (29 June 2015).

His previous national record 46.02s was set en-route to win silver medal at 28th SEA Games, at Singapore recently, where he also clinched silver medal from the 400m hurdles (50.29s).

For a record, his time is the second fastest of Southeast Asia after the Philippines' Isidro Del Prado who registered 45.57s at Manila in 1984.

Quach Cong Lich, Nguyen Thi Huyen (top right), Quach Thi Lan (bottom right)
What makes this feat more fascinating is that his girlfriend, Nguyen Thi Huyen (top right) has also won the women's category with a time of 52.41s which is another gold for her after taking first spot (52.27s) during the 2nd leg at Pathumthani a few days ago.

In the recent SEA Games, Thi Huyen has bagged three gold medals home from the 400m (52.00s), 400m hurdles (56.15s), and 4x400m. She also set a record for being the first Vietnamese to qualify for the 2015 World championships and the 2016 Rio Olympic Games in two individual events.

To further highlight the geatness of Vietnamese Athletics, particularly "this family", his younger sister Quach Thi Lan (bottom right) also performed well in the recent SEA Games by winning silver medal at 400m and gold at 4x400m.

In addition, Thi Lan also won silver medal at 400m (52.06s) during the 2014 ASIAN Games in Guangzhou, where she was defeated only by a Nigerian-born Bahrain runner.

Men's 400m (summary)
1. Quach Cong Lich VIE 45.99
2. Arokya Rajiv IND 46.07
3. Hashemiahangari Sajjad IRI 46.39
4. Zamani Mahdi IRI 46.60
5. Kumarage Hewa SRI 47.11
6. Archand Christian Bagsit PHI 47.56
7. Edgardo Alejan PHI 47.65
8. Sergey Zaikov KAZ 47.79

Women's 400m (summary)
1. Nguyen Thi Huyen VIE 52.41
2. Poovamma Machithra IND 52.60
3. Rakhmanova KAZ 52.99
4. Quach Thi Lan VIE 53.16
5. Anilda Thomas IND 54.24
6. Elina Mikhina KAZ 54.40
7. Huang Yan CHN 55.25
8. Yang Sijia CHN 59.83


Results Melaka Open Track and Field Meet 2015

>> June 28, 2015

Melaka, 13-14 Jun 2015 “Melaka Open Track and Field Championships”
-state championships; hand-timed; wind-reading not reported; relay composition not reported; underweight implements in junior throwing events; selected results as follows;

100m (14): Mohd Aiedel Sa’adon 10.8h

200m (13): Kannathasan Subramaniam 22.0h

400m (13): Mohamad Emyrul Haziq Borhan 50.7h

S P (13): Mohamad Alif Hanif Mohd Affendi 13.83, 2. Goh Wei Kiang 13.03, 3. Mohd Ikbal Kamarudin 11.73;

D T (13): Mohd Ikbal Kamaruddin 38.53, 2. Mohamad Alif Hanif Affendi 36.71;

100m (14)/nwi: Khairul Hafiz Jantan 10.6h, 2. Asnawi Hashim 10.7h, 3. Muhammad Haikal Hanafi 10.8h, 4. Mohd Nazreen Izat Che Hassan 11.0h;

-semis: S1/nwi: 1s1 Asnawi Hashim 10.7h, 2s1 Mohd Hazreen Izat Che Hassan 10.9h, 3s1 Muhammad Haikal Haanafi 11.1h;
 S2/nwi: 1s2 Khairul Hafiz Jantan 10.4h, 2s2 Muhammad Hazwan Abdul Ghalib 10.9h;

-heats: H1/nwi: 1h1 Asnawi hashim 10.7h, 2h1 Muhammad Hazwan Abdul Ghalib 11.0h;
H2/nwi: 1h2 Khairul Hafiz Jantan 10.8h;
H5/nwi: 1h5 Mohd Nazreen Izat Che Hassan 11.1h;

200m (13)/nwi: Khairul Hafiz Jantan 21.0h/doubtful-timing, 2. Asnawi Hashim 21.8h, 3. Muhammad Haikal Hanafi 22.1h, 4. Muhammad Hazwan Abdul Ghalib 22.1h, 5. Mohd Nazreen Izat Che Hassan 22.1h, 6. Muhammad Aidel Sa-adon 22.6h;

-heats H1/nwi: 1h1 Mohd Nazreen Izat Che Hassan 22.2h, 2h1 Muhammad Hazwan Abdul Ghalib 22.6h;
H2/nwi: 1h2 Muhammad Haikal Hanafi 22.5h;
H3/nwi: 1h3 Khairul Hafiz Jantan 21.4h, 2h3 Muhammad Aiedel Sa’Adon 22.7h;
 H4/nwi: 1h4 Asnawi Hashim 22.1h;

110mh (14): Mohamad Emyrul Haziq Borhan 15.1h;

4x100m (13): SSTMI Team (?,?,?,?) 42.00

D T/1.5kg (13): Muhammad Azizi Mazlan 36.16;

100m (14): Lau Kah Lin 12.3h

S P (13): Nur Saiyidah Ramli 11.09

D T (13): Nur Atiqah Sufiah (Joh) 30.38

J T (14): Fatin Nur Shahiera Che Rahim 37.28, 2. Siti Aisyah Nora Rahis 34.61, 3. Fatin Adibah Suharman 32.03;


Results ASIAN Grand Prix, Bangkok Thailand 2015

>> June 23, 2015

1st Leg (out of three) Results of ASIAN Grand Prix 2015 at Bangkok, Thailand (22 June 2015)

100 Metres
Race 1 (-0.1)
1. Bobby Yaspi INA 10.61
2. Bundit Chuangchai THA 10.74
3. Wang Zezhi CHN 10.83

Race 2 (-0.1)
1. Hassan Taftian IRI 10.24
2. Pan Xinyue CHN 10.44
3. Calvin Kang Li Loong SIN 10.56

400 Metres
Race 1
1. Sajjad Hashemi IRI 46.72
2. Rajiv Arokia IND 46.86
3. Zhu Chenbin CHN 46.96

Race 2
1. Quach Cong Lich VIE 46.73
2. Hewa Kalinga Kumarage SRI 47.05
3. Anjana Gunarathne SRI 47.32

110m Hurdles (-0.3)
1. Yacoub Mohamed Al-Youha KUW 13.68
2. Jamras Rittidet THA 13.89
3. Jack Conway AUS 14.21

High Jump
1. Keyvan Ghanbarzadeh IRI 2.26 / NR
2. Majed Eddin Ghazal SYR 2.26
3. Wang Chen CHN 2.23

Long Jump
1. Tang Gongchen CHN 7.79 / -0.9
2. Ankit Sharma IND 7.78 / 0.0
3. Li Chenbin CHN 7.56 / -0.4

Shot Put
1. Inderjeet Singh IND 19.83
2. Guangfu CHN 18.82
3. Guo Yanxiang CHN 18.79

Javelin Throw
1. Huang Shih-Feng TPE 80.27
2. Ma Qun CHN 78.19
3. Li Yingchang CHN 72.92

4x100 Metres
1. Hong Kong Team 39.41
2. Sri Lanka Team 39.58
3. Thailand A Team  39.65


100 Metres
Race 1 (-0.1)
1. Farzaneh Fasihi IRI 11.95
2. Wanwisa Kongthong THA 12.14
3. Sureewan Runan THA 12.29

Race 2 (+0.9)
1. Viktoriya Zyabkina KAZ 11.36
2. Liang Xiaojing CHN 11.52
3. Srabani Nanda IND 11.58

400 Metres
Race 1
1. Huang Yan CHN 55.69
2. Danah Hussein Abdulrazzak IRQ 56.08
3. Juthamas Kongkham THA 56.88

Race 2
1. Yuliya Rakhmanova KAZ 53.26
2. Yang Huizhen CHN 53.29
3. Machettira Raju Poovamma IND 53.51

800 Metres
1. W.K.L.A. Nimali SRI 2:07.18
2. Do Thi Thao VIE 2:07.38
3. Marimuthu Gomathi IND 2:07.40

100m Hurdles (+0.5)
1. Anastasiya Pilipenko KAZ 13.25
2. Wang Dou CHN 13.40
3. Gayathri Govindaraj IND 13.72

High Jump
1. Wanida Boonwan THA 1.86
2. Wang Lin CHN 1.83
3. Sepideh Tavakoli IRI 1.79

Triple Jump
1. Li Xiaohong CHN 13.82 / 0.0
2. Aleksandra Kotlyarova UZB 13.76 / +0.4
3. Irina Ektova KAZ 13.59 / -1.1

Shot Put
1. Bian Ka CHN 17.52
2. Meng Qianqian CHN 16.24
3. Lin Chia Ying TPE 16.04

Discus Throw
1. Weng Chunxia CHN 60.82
2. Feng Bin CHN 58.70
3. Subenrat Insaeng THA 57.10

4x100 Metres
1. China Team 44.72
2. Thailand A Team 45.12
3. Indonesia Team 45.70

Download FULL RESULTS of ASIAN Grand Prix in Athletics 2015
Video courtesy of Hong Kong AAA


ASIAN Athletics 2014 Rankings by Heinrich Hubbeling

>> June 14, 2015

 ASIAN Athletics

  2 0 1 4    R a n k i n g s

  compiled by/orders to: 
   Heinrich  Hubbeling,
     Haaksbergener Str  25, 
  48691 Vreden / GERMANY
             or by E-Mail:   hhubbeling@t-online.de

97 pages including
-TOP 30 lists 2014
 + detailed lists for additional best performers from countries other than CHN or JPN
    (up to best 4 per country for each event)
 + all national records set during the 2014 season
-ASIAN Continental records as at 31.12.2014 (Seniors/Juniors / Outdoors and Seniors / Indoors)
-ASIAN athletes in world ranking lists 2014 (survey)
-additions/corrections to ASIAN Athletics 2013 Rankings

Available by payment in advance to the compiler at

-EURO 15 (in Germany) or EUR 20/USD 30 (to other European countries & by surface
 mail to countries outside of Europe) by payment
  -in cash (per letter) in EURO, USD or equivalent in other currencies    or
  -by International Money Order ( IMO );
-for payments by cheque (drawn on banks outside of Germany)  EUR 5 have to be added due to
 the very high bank charges

N.B.: -a few copies of the editions for the seasons 1998; 2005; 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009;
            2011; 2012 and 2013 are still available at  EURO 15 or USD 22 per copy;
           all other Yearbooks are sold out.
           In addition a few copies of the “ASIAN Athletics All-Time Rankings as at 31.12.2000”-
           Book are still available against reduced payment of EURO 15/USD 22



To be updated




To be updated



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